Dental Stem Cells in Wisdom Teeth
Today one of the most promising sources of dental stem cells resides within the wisdom teeth in adults. Stem cells located within the pulp tissue can be isolated and stored as a source for regenerative medicine therapies. More importantly, the process of isolating and storing of cells from Wisdom teeth is relatively cost-effective when compared with another tissue of stem cells such as cord blood, a popular source for banking. Additionally, the efficacy of these cryopreserved wisdom dental stem cells has been validated by some studies showing that the viability and clinical potential after both short and long-term storage remains unaffected. These results highlight the promise of children’s teeth stem cells as a source of regenerative cells for long-term banking and clinical applications.
One of the most important complications related to the cryopreservation of dental tissue is the time passed between tissue collecting and banking. Once the tooth is lost or removed the vital wisdom tooth will begin to damage, causing irreversible injury to the cellular elements. Presently, to reduce tissue degradation, teeth are placed in sterile phosphate solution which prevents dehydration and injury. Then, wisdom teeth are transferred into a vial, which is carefully sealed and put into a temperature carrier and subsequently transported to the banking facility in a specific transport vessel. Importantly, these materials will be provided by the tooth bank.
From a medical point of view, the sample selection criteria for adult wisdom stem cells are the following:
- The most appropriate source of wisdom teeth for isolation and banking are the incisors and canines since these teeth frequently contain a healthy source of pulp tissue and thus a sufficient number of stem cells;
- The extracted wisdom teeth are preferred than loose teeth;
- The pulp inside the teeth should be red in color, indicating blood supply and thus cell viability;
- The teeth should have 2/3 of root remaining.
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